Tuesday, July 24, 2012

(KATAKAIO) "Burned Up" or (HEURISKO) "Discovered" ?

     One of the most intriguing questions facing students of the sacred writings is
whether katakaio  ("burned up/down")  or  heurisko  ("discovered/laid bare")  is
the  correct reading in 2 Peter 3:10?

     English translations generally fall into two categories as to which reading they
accept as the original reading. The KJV, ASV, RSV,  NASB, and the  NKJV accept
katakaesetai  (will  be  burned  up")  as  the  more  probable  reading, while the
NIV-84,   NRSV,  ESV,  TNIV,  and   the   NIV-2011   accept   heurethesetai
(will be discovered/laid bare) as the correct reading. It is noteworthy that the
the ASV has "will be burned up" in the text, yet the translators have a footnote
that says, "The most ancient manuscripts read discovered." The footnotes of
the ASV are often a treasure-trove of exegetical information.

                                               Manuscript Testimony

      Codices Sinaiticus ( dated about 350-375 A.D.) and Vaticanus (dated about
350 A.D.) have "heurethesetai." Codex Alexandrinus (dated about the early fifth
century; 425-450 A.D.) reads katakaesetai. Papyrus 72, a small but important
codex that dates from the early fourth century (about 300 A.D.) has the reading  
heurethesetai, but adds the participle luomena "will be found dissolved." At  this
point in the manuscript tradition, the reading heurethesetai is the oldest of the
existing readings. 

                             The Reading of  Various Greek Text Editions

     Desiderius  Erasmus'  Greek  New  Testament,  Novum  Instrumentu  Omne,
has katakaesetai. The Textus Receptus, the Greek text underlying the King James
Version of 1611 has katakaesetai. Hermann Freiherr Von Soden's edition of the
Greek Testament, Die Schriften Des Neuen Testaments, contains the reading  
heurethesetai.  The Greek New Testament compiled by Constantinus Tischendorf,
Novum Testamentum Graece, reads katakaesetai. B. F. Wescott and F. J. A.
Hort's edition of the Greek New Testament contains the reading heurethesetai 
The Greek New Testament According To The Majority Text has katakaesetai.
The Nestle-Aland/UBS Greek Testaments have heurethesetai in the text. In some
editions  the  editors   give  this  reading  a  "D" rating, meaning there was/is a very
high degree of doubt concerning the reading selected for the text.

     There are a variety of readings among the existing witnesses to this portion of
the Greek New Testament among the manuscripts and ancient writers. As stated
earlier, heurethesetai is the oldest reading, and probably explains the origin of the
others, and especially why some scribes, ancient versions  and  writers "expanded"
or modified the reading.

     So, in context, Peter affirms the coming day of judgment, and that the wicked
will have no place to hide from the wrath of God. Human wickedness will be laid 
bare or exposed to God's "all-seeing eyes."  

     The NIV,  NRSV,  ESV,  and  NIV-2011 seem  to  have it right. The New Living 
Translation paraphrases in this way, "exposed  to  judgment."  The  Message says,
"exposed to the scrutiny of Judgment."

     Based  on  the  evidence  currently  available   I  believe  the  correct reading is
heurethesetai. Contrary  to  what  some  Bible  students  have  said,  accepting  
heurethesetai does not  lend support to the advocates of the false theory that says
the earth will exist forever. The context of 2 Peter  3:10 is decisive. The heavens
including the earth will be destroyed and cease to exist. The text explicitly says,
"the heavens and earth that now exist are stored up for fire...the heavens will pass
away with a roar... all these things will be dissolved...the heavenly bodies will melt
as they burn!" (2 Peter 3:7,10-12; ESV)

                                                                                                                  R. Daly

Copyright 2012

Thursday, May 10, 2012

Life In Abundance

     Jesus affirms "I have come that they may have life and have it in abundance."
(Jno. 10:10, Daly's New Testament Translation) Contextually, Jesus draws a
contrast between himself and "thieves, robbers, and hired hands" who do not
have the best interests of the sheep in their hearts. (verses 7-13) Jesus does. He
laid down his life for the sheep. (v. 15) The "hired hand" abandons the sheep and
runs away when the wolf attacks because he cares nothing for the sheep. (v. 13)

     Jesus did not merely come that the sheep may have life, but that they may
"have it in abundance." The English phrase "have it in abundance" translates the
Greek phrase "perisson echosin." Grammatically, perisson is an accusative
neuter adjective form of perissos. It is used in such passages as (Mat. 5:47)
with the connotation of "extraordinary, in surplus;" (2 Cor. 9:1) where it means
"superfluous, not  necessary;"  (Mk. 6:51)  with   the   meaning   "extremely,

     Perissos is used in (Jno. 10:10) with the meaning "extraordinary, in surplus,
in abundance." Jesus did not come to bring gold, silver, houses and precious
jewels to his followers. In a sense he himself did not have those things on the
earth. (Lk. 9:58) He  came  to  provide  something  that  transcends  all  this
world has to offer. He came that humanity might have life (zoe), that is, an
experience transcending normal physical life. This sublime quality of "life"
that the Master came to provide exceeds earthly necessity! The NIV-2011
translates the sentence in (Jno. 10:10) in this way, "I have come that they may
have life, and have it to the full." 

     As the grand old song says, "Earthly wealth and fame may never come to me
and a palace fair here mine  may never be, but let come what may, if Christ my
Lord does care, anywhere is home if he is only there!"

     Let us seek "life in abundance." It is in Christ and in order to have it we must
be  in  Christ. We  get  into him by faith (Gal. 3:26-27), repentance (Acts 3:19),
confession (1 Tim. 6:12), and immersion (Rom. 6:3-4). Our sins will be forgiven
and we will "rise to walk in newness of life" on earth and have life "to the full."

                                                                                                             R. Daly

Copyright 2012